Nephrology is the branch of medical science that deals with the diseases of kidneys. It is concerned with normal kidney function, kidney problems and its treatment: renal replacement therapy, Kidney transplantation, dialysis etc. Kidneys are very vital organ of the body with a network of blood vessels and tubes. The function of kidney is to filter blood of its impurities and excess water.A specialist doctor in nephrology is known as Nephrologist.Diseases under nephrologyNephrology concerns itself with study of the working of the kidneys and its diseases. The diseases that come under nephrology are:- Acid base imbalances Autoimmune diseases including autoimmune vasculitis, lupus, etc. Bladder Cancer, Kidney Cancer and Urethral Cancer Dialysis and its long term complications – dialysis includes hemodialysis as well as peritoneal dialysis Effects of diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure on kidneys Glomerular disorders that affect the tiny filtering systems of the kidneys called the glomerulus Hydronephrosis Ill effects of drugs and toxins on the kidneys Kidney Stone and Bladder Stone Kidney infections Nephrotic syndrome and nephritis Polycystic kidney diseases where large cysts or fluid filled sacs are formed within the kidney impairing its functions – this is a congenital and inherited or genetic condition Renal failure that can be sudden or acute or long term or chronic Renal vascular diseases affecting the blood vessel networks within the kidneys Tubulointerstitial diseases affecting the tubules in the kidney Urine abnormalities (urinary infection) such as excess excretion of protein, sugar, blood, casts, crystals etc.